General physiology and biophysics, 2016
Lazniewska, J., & Weiss, N. (2016). Glycosylation of α2δ1 subunit: a sweet talk with Cav1.2 channels. General Physiology and Biophysics.
Lazniewska, J., and N. Weiss. “Glycosylation of α2δ1 Subunit: a Sweet Talk with Cav1.2 Channels.” General physiology and biophysics (2016).
Lazniewska, J., and N. Weiss. “Glycosylation of α2δ1 Subunit: a Sweet Talk with Cav1.2 Channels.” General Physiology and Biophysics, 2016.
Bosentan, an endothelin-1 (ET) receptor antagonist is an important drug for the effective management of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Bosentan has a rather complicated pharmacokinetics in humans involving multiple physiological components that have a profound influence on its drug disposition. Bosentan is mainly metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and 2C9 enzymes with the involvement of multiple transporters that control its hepatic uptake and biliary excretion. The involvement of phase 2 metabolism of bosentan is a key to have an enhanced biliary excretion of the drug-related products. While bosentan exhibits high protein binding restricting the drug from extensive distribution and significant urinary excretion, bosentan induces its own metabolism by an increased expression of CYP3A4 on repeated dosing. Due to the above properties, bosentan has the potential to display drug-drug interaction with the co-administered drugs, either being a perpetrator or a victim. The intent of this review is manifold: a) to summarize the physiological role of CYP enzymes and hepatic-biliary transporters; b) to discuss the mechanism(s) involved in the purported liver injury caused by bosentan; c) to tabulate the numerous clinical drug-drug interaction studies involving the physiological interplay with CYP and/or transporters; d) to provide some perspectives on dosing strategy of bosentan.